Different Types of Wood Finishes

We use many Wood Finishes to protect the wooden surfaces from moisture and other environmental agents and enhance appearance. It is the final step of woodworking project. It creates a protective layer on the wood surface. They are good for both new and old furniture. The wood finishes are different from one another by colors, durability or self life. Some of them can be removing by solvent, whereas some others particularly that are sock into the wood are often difficult to remove. So you have to choose right finishes according to your demands. It gives the low value wood to a high value wooded out looking.

Depends on absorption capacity wood finishes are two types such as surface finishing and penetrating finishing. We can place all most all the wood finishes of these two categories. In below we describe some of the most common types of wood finishes.

Surface finishing: Surface finishing is easier to apply on the surface. It creates extra layer on the top of wood surface. It leaves natural look to the wood. The most common surface finishes are lacquer, shellac, polyurethane, varnish and wax etc.

Penetrating finishing: This type of finishing is also applied on the wood surface but it get into the wood. Normally they are oil based finishes. It is durable but it doesn’t create a natural look on walls. Linseed, Danish, and Tung oil is a type of penetrating oil.

Again, the wood finishes are also classified into two groups – water based and oil based finishes. The water based finishes dry very fast and can be used on all types of woods. On the other hand they are less durable and have little odor compare to oil based finishes.

Varnish

Varnish is a clear and transparent or slightly colored finishes. It is resinous substance. It is very durable and provides better UV protection. The varnish dry slowly so needs more time to work and allow dust to settle on it which is the drawback of this finish. It works better when apply on the top of dyes.

Shellac

Shellac is a natural product which is collect from the secretion of female lac bug. It is a resin type material and sold as a flakes (solid form) or liquid form. The liquid form is produced by dissolving with a solvent such as alcohol. The application process is very easy and dried quickly. When the solvent evaporates it is safe and gives a glossy look to the wood. It is not heat resistant, so it has a limited uses in some furniture like dining table. The Shellac has a shorter shelf life than other finishes.

Stain

Wood stain is a type of paint which is used to changes or enhances the wood color. They are available in different colors. They do not protect the wood.

Different types of wood finishes

Lacquers

Lacquer is thinner as compared to the other finishes. So, it is normally applied by spraying. It gets into the deeper wood and show up the natural beauty of the wood. Lacquer contains evaporating solvent, so it dries very fast. It provides extremely glossy look to the wood. The Lacquer is durable and resistant to alcohol, water and fruit juice. However, after a while it can begin to discolor. Once applied, we can remove it by using lacquer thinner. Normally it is used in different instruments like guitar. The woodworker needs a well ventilated and open workplace to apply it because it gives off harmful fumes and risky in presence of fire.

Dye

Dyes are one kind of wood finishes. Normally they are used to protect interior wooden surfaces. Application process is very easy with brush, sponge, or spray gun.

Oil finishes

Oil finishes are used on wood for improving the appearance of unfurnished wood. They make wood moisture resistant and look richer. It can be used for both the interior and the exterior surface. The most common finishing oils are Linseed oil, Tung oil and Danish oils. The oil finishes can be classified into drying oil and or non-drying oil. Between two of them drying oil is popular to woodworker. Linseed oil, Tung oil and Danish oils all are drying oil. Vegetable and mineral oils are non-drying oils. Woodworker can easily apply the Tung oil which provides an attractive and natural appearance, so they prefer it very much.

Wax

Wax finishes provide very glossy surface to the wood. It may be harder or softer. It is not very durable, you can remove it easily. Waxes are available in liquid, paste and solid stick forms.

Polyurethane Finish

Polyurethane is a durable and water resistant finish. Mainly two types polyurethane are available in the market – water based and oil based. Water based polyurethane is faster drying, low odor and low toxic while oil based polyurethane is fairly inexpensive, durable and easily applicable. Polyurethane finish is durable compare to varnish and lacquer and perfect for bookcase, kitchen cabinets, desks, door, side tables, furniture floor etc. The application process on wood surface is very easy.

Biscuit joiner tool

Biscuit joiner tool is not a basic woodworking tools; it is special type equipment. It is also known as plate joiners. A biscuit joiner is used to join two pieces of wood together without staples, nails, or screws. It is an electric woodworking tool. This tool has a small blade which is used to cut semi-circular slot in the opposite edges of two pieces of wood. You can easily use the biscuit joiner. Hermann Steiner, a citizen of Switzerland invented the system in 1956.

Joiner biscuit

Uses of Biscuit joiner tool

The Biscuit joiner tool is mainly used for joining two pieces of plywood, particle board and medium density fiber board. It is also used in solid wood. The work pieces can be joined through perpendicular or horizontal process. Among them the edge to edge joining system is the most common type system.

Biscuit Joiner Accessories

The Biscuit Joiner has three most essential accessories – biscuits, blades, and glue.

Biscuit joiner blade

The biscuit joiner consists of a small motorized “saw blade” to cut oval shape hole into the wood pieces for inserting biscuits. There are two types Biscuit joiner blades are available- 4-inch blades and 2 inch biscuit joiner blade. But the major of the biscuit joiners have 4-inch blades.

What is a biscuit

A biscuit is a thin, oval shape of wooden piece typically which is made of compressed beech wood. The biscuit is expanded after absorbing glue in the slot and fill the slot. This swelling capacity of it provides holding power and accuracy alignment. The thickness of the biscuits is 0.148 inches and available as three different sizes which are designated as #0, #10, and #20. Among them the measurement of the #0 is 5/8 inch wide and 1 3/4 inches long. On the other hand the #10, is 3/4 inch wide and 2 1/8 inch long whereas the #20, is 1 inch wide and 2 3/8 inches long. The biscuit should be smaller than the slot for accurate and perfect alignment.

Glue

The glue should have wetting capacity to expand the compressed biscuit. When the slots fill with glue, it should not be fully covered.

How to use a biscuit joiner

Biscuit joiner tool

Take two pieces of wood which would to be joined. Cut the slot on the two pieces of wood by biscuit joiner tool. After cut the slot, the glue is applied into the slot so that ¼ of the slot depth covered with glue. Insert oval shape wooden biscuit into the slots. Center the biscuit into the slots but it is need not essential to get them into the exact center. Two boards are clamped together to create tight, smooth, and seamless joints. The glue wet the biscuit and helps to expand the compressed biscuit. It helps to keep the wood pieces accurate position and improve the joining strength. Keep the clamp until the glue dries.

Carpenters pliers – pincers

There are various types of pliers available for specific functions. The pliers that are used in woodworking project are called carpenters pliers. Actually, it is known as carpenters pincers. It is one kind common and basic hand tools for carpenters. They use it to pull out nail or to hold wide range of object firmly. Normally it is made of steel alloys combination with other metals like vanadium or chromium. These metals improve strength of the pliers and prevent them from corrosion.

Parts of Carpenter pincers

The carpenter’s pincers have many parts such as jaw, cutting edge, pivot point and handles. Each of the parts has specific tasks. The functions of the parts are described as below:

carpenters pliers

Jaw

Carpenters pincers have broad range rounded jaws. It protects the wood during extracting nails or staples to damage. It also helps to pulling out the nails and staples.

Cutting edge

The cutting edge has beveled type and broad tip. It provides the pincers an extra cutting strength to grip when the carpenters want to cutting or pulling the nails. The edge of the good quality pincers will meet together without any gaps and provides plenty of cutting strength.

Pivot Point

Pivot point is the center point for moving the handle and jaws. Normally, it consists of a nut or screw. Some has two pivot points. The first pivot point acts as a lever on the second one, magnifying the force applied to the jaws for the same amount of effort.

Handles

The handles act as levers to force the jaws. Normally, the most part of the handle are covered with plastic or rubber for comfort and for good looking. The carpenter’s pincers consists of two handle. When the force applied on the handle, they moves in opposite directions, around a center pivot and comes together like scissors.

What are carpenters pliers used for?

The carpenters pincers are used for gripping and pull out nails or clevis pins from wood without damaging the wood work piece surface. It has wide rounded jaws; therefore it would not dig into the wood. It is also useful for repairing windows and doors, removing skirting boards and renovating furniture. Some pincers are design with hammerhead to striking the nails. Moreover, it is also used for cutting nails, wire or staples.
carpenters pincers

Difference between End cutting and carpenters pincers

The main difference between the End cutting and carpenters pincers are cutting edges, jaw size and handle length. The end cutting pincers have very sharp cutting edges compare to carpenters pincers. Therefore it can easily cut nails and bolts, so it is used for cutting while carpenter pincers are used for pulling nails. Most of the end cutting pincers sizes are 150mm to 200mm whereas the carpenters pincers can up to 300 mm. On the other hand the width of the head can be 20mm-30mm. The end cutting pincers may have return spring to reduce the effort for repetitive task. End cutting pincers, also known as end cutters, nippers or end cutting pliers.

Conclusion

Always choose right carpenters pliers for your woodwork, so that they fit well. You should not use the pincers for thicker objects that the sizes are projected. Never use them as a hammer. Otherwise they will be damage.

Types of woodworking screwdrivers and their uses

Screwdriver is one of the important hand tools for different woodworking project. It is used to drive or loosen screw into the wood. A woodworking screwdriver has some basic parts like handle, shank, blade, and tip. It has many variations but two basic types of screwdrivers such as flathead screwdriver and Philips type screwdriver are most popular. Always try to use exact screwdriver for driving or loosening a screw. Otherwise it can damage the screw or the tip of the screwdriver or woodworkpieces. You should keep in mind, all the time use flat head screwdriver for flathead screw and Philips screwdriver for Philips screws. Sometimes you may needs long blade for a lot of torque. You may also need a small or medium flat screwdriver so that they can reach easily in work place. At starting, use minimal force on to the screw. Although all most all the screwdrivers are handheld, few of them are electric. It is also used in many maintenance works like mechanical, electrical, jewelry work etc.
Types of woodworking screwdrivers and their uses

Parts of a screwdriver

A traditional Screwdriver has four basic parts; Handle, shank, blade and tip.
Parts of a screwdriver

Handle

The handle is cylindrical and widest part of the screwdriver. It is used for griping during work time. Normally it is made of hard and durable plastic, wood or metal. The handle should be comfortable so that people can feel comfort during maximum torque.

Shank

The shank is thinner than handle. Normally it is made of hard steel. It attached to the handle and the blade. It can be long, medium or short. The long shank will provide more torque than a short shank.

Blade

The blade can be seen in flat head screwdriver.

Tip

The tip is the end of the blade or shank. Actually the classification of the screwdriver depends on this part of the screwdriver. Normally it is made of steel. When you use a screwdriver always try to use exact matching tip; never use a wider or narrow tip. If we use a wider or narrow tip, then it may damage the surface of the workpiece or screw or tip. The tip may be magnetic to easily grab on to the screw. Some of the screwdriver has detachable tip; in this case it is known as bit. Normally it is shown in a set of screwdriver where contains one holder and several bits.

Types of woodworking screwdriver

There are various types of screwdriver that are used in woodworking. Actually they are classified according to their shape and sizes. They are made for different types of driving surface like slot, grooves etc. of screws. Among them flathead and Philips type screwdriver are popular. Besides these two basic types of woodworking screwdriver, some of other screwdrivers such as square head screwdriver are also used in woodworking.

Flat head screwdriver

Flathead screwdriver is very simple and most common; hence it is also known as regular screwdriver. It is fits to the single slot screw. From earliest time, it is the most common and basic types of screwdriver. The flat head screwdrivers are two categories; flared and parallel types. The flared screwdriver has slightly wider edge tip compare to their shank. On the other hand the edge of the parallel screwdriver is same width as the shank.



Flat head screwdriver

Philips screwdriver

The Philips screw driver contains a cross or a four star point, hence they are known as cross screwdriver. You can apply more force or torque with these screwdriver compare to the flathead screwdriver. These types of woodworking screwdriver have less possibility to slip out. So they can damage on the head of the screw and the workpieces very low. To avoid damages, you should choose the exact screwdriver. Henry F. Philips designs this screwdriver and the screw in 1930s; this is why the name is Philips screwdriver. They can be small, medium or large. Further some screwdriver such as Pozidriv, Frearson, Supadriv looks almost similar to this but they are slightly deference. Pozidriv can provide more torque then Philips type screwdriver but their design is very complex. You can use flathead screwdriver instead of it but not with Robertson screw.



Philips screwdriver

Frearson Screwdriver

Frearson screwdriver also has cross slot as like Philips screwdriver. But it is slightly difference; The Philips slot looks like U-shaped whereas frearson slot looks like V-shaped. Moreover, the screw slot of it is deeper then Philips screw. It is also known as Reed and Prince.

Square screwdriver

The square head screwdriver is not tapered and has very sharp corner whereas Robertson is slightly tapered and round corner. If you use square screwdriver in a Robertson screw oppositely use a Robertson screwdriver in a square screw, then it can damage the screw or driver. You will get huge torque and driving force. Today it is not a popular screwdriver.
Square screwdriver

Robertson screwdriver

Robertson is almost same as square screwdriver. Some people know them as square head screwdriver. The Robertson screwdriver’s tip has slightly taper and slightly rounded corners. The tapered socket tends to retain the screw, so it is easy to use. Normally, the USA Companies are manufacturing square type screwdriver. Robertson are popular in Canada. It reduces damage of the screw or workpiece. The all four side of the square head grip strongly and apply better torque.

Robertson screwdriver

Torx head screwdriver

Torx look like star screw but it has six point head. So it will get a lot of surface area in touch to the screw. It reduces slip out. The Torx apply more torque then Philips screwdriver. Normally it is used mostly in electric, automobiles, motorcycles, computer etc.

Offset screwdriver

Offset screwdriver is special types of screwdriver with the blade at right angles. It is used where a straight screwdriver cannot reach or too difficult to reach. It is come with combination of flathead or Philips head tip. It may contains magnetic tips or ratchet mechanism.

Offset screwdriver

Ratchet screwdriver

Ratchet screwdriver is also special types of screwdriver. It has a lock and unlocks system. When you rotate the handle clockwise, then it will lock and works i.e. it tighten the screw. On the other hand, when you rotate the handle to the counter clockwise, then it will unlock (freely rotate) and does not works. A ratchet screwdriver is used greatly where needs to apply same torque. It can be flat headed or Philips headed. The can also come with a ratchet bit holder and several different types of bit.



Ratchet screwdriver

Conclusion

Some woodworking project cannot do without screwdriver. You do not need all types of woodworking screwdriver in your toolbox. You should consider what types of work you are doing regularly. To get benefits and for quality work, you should make sure about using the right types of screwdriver for your work. Do not use hammer for strike on the screwdriver or screw.

Woodworking clamps

Woodworking clamps work as strap. There are so many types of clamps that are used to place objects tightly together in carpentry works. The common joiner or carpenters clamps are bar clamps, pipe clamps, c clamps, spring clams, hand screw, Band clamps, Miter clamps etc. The clamps come in many different style sizes. One clamp cannot perform so many works. Therefore a carpenter may needs more clamps but not too many. Here we peek some essential clamps for woodworking projects.
woodworking clamps

1. Woodworking bar clamps

Bar clamps are especially used for carpentry works to hold pieces of wood together for flagging, gluing, nailing and cutting. A carpenter can use these woodworking clamps easily and quickly. They can be divided for light duty, moderate duty or heavy duty. The common woodworking bar clamps are parallel bar clamps, f clamps, one handed bar clamps, Deep throat bar clamps etc. They contain a bar which is looking as like I-beam. They are great for accurate clamping pressure.

Parallel bar clamps

Parallel bar clamp is one of the significant clamps for woodworking. It has two rectangular jaws. One of them is fixed whereas the rest one is movable. They provide strong clamping force to the accurate directions which makes easier alignments. Reasons the jaws remain parallel. Some parallel bar clamps have configuration so that they can use as a spreader. They are available in various lengths.
Parallel bar clamps

F clamps

F clamps is one kind of bar clamps which is suitable for a wide range of woodworking projects. It is designed with a slider bar which provides large opening capacity. Besides slider bar it also has two parallel bar and an adjustable screw. One of the parallel bars is fixed while another is moving. The adjustable screw is used for tightened. As the slider bar is smooth, it should be free from oil, graze etc. The name comes from that it looks like the letter ‘F’.
F clamps

Deep throat bar clamp

Deep throat bar clamps is suitable for the work where extra deep reach is required home repair. They are very useful for high pressure application and wide opening capacity. They have versatile uses, so it will be great to keep in joiner’s collection with other carpenters clamps. These woodworking bar clamps are available in different depth from 6 inches to 79 inches.
Deep throat bar clamps

One handed bar clamps

One handed bar clamps has two jaw. One of them is movable and other is fixed. The movable jaw contains a trigger grip handle and a release lever. When the trigger grip handle is press then the movable jaw go forward to the fixed jaw and give pressure to the work piece. While the work is complete then the joiners just have to press the release lever to open the clamp. It is so easy that a joiner needs only one hand so other hand is free for holding another position of the work. One handed bar clamps has also a spreader function. For this the fixed jaw has to set another end of the bar. This facility can be used many woodworking project like cabinet, chair or tables making project. The available sizes are from 6 inches to 60 inches.


2. Hand screw woodworking clamps

The hand screw clamps are extremely versatile and wonderful tools. It consists of a pair of jaws, pair of handles, and pair of screws. Two handles are connected with screws. The screws are design with right-hand and left-hand threaded that run through both jaws and connected them. They are adjustable and control the movement of the jaws. You can easily clamp tapered, angle or offset of a workpieces. Normally the jaws are made of wood.

3. C Clamp

Each carpenter starts their clamp collection with a few c clamps. It has two parts; frame and threaded screw with Tommy bar. The name comes from the frame shape which looks like the letter ‘C’. At the top of the frame has small flat edge whereas at the bottom has a threaded hole for holds threaded screw. On the other hand the frame side end of the screw contains a flat edge while the other ends contains tommy bar. These woodworking clamps made of cast iron or steel. Sometimes it is also refers as G-clamps or carriage clamp. It is an essential tool for joiners. They come in different sizes which also indicate the clamping capacity. It provides a massive amount of pressure into a small region. Therefore some project needs to use a piece of wood between the clamp edge and the surface of the workpiece to distribute the clamping pressure.

4. Pipe Clamps

The pipe clamps are composed of two heads, pipe, adjustable screw and handle. One of the heads or jaws is fixed whereas the other is moveable. The movable screw is control by adjustable screw with handle. They look like a bar clamp. The main difference between them is that it has a sliding pipe instead of sliding bar. So it has a long opening capacity which is related to the length of pipe size. It is less expensive then bar clamps but comparatively shorter length pipe clamps are expensive. They are various sizes and diameters such as 3/4˝ diameter pipe and 1/2˝diameter pipe.

5. Spring Clamp

Spring clamps looks like clothes clip. It has two jaws with two handles which are joined together by a spring. It is a small kind of carpenter’s clamps and has a limited opening capacity. They are available in different sizes and styles. They are perfect for use in many woodworking projects like gluing and domestic tasks. Spring clamps are also known as hand clamps or pinch clamps. Some of them contain adjustable jaw.

6. Band Clamp

Band clamps are used for clamping round, square, oval, hexagonal, rectangular or other bend shape workpieces. They may contain flexible strap, and ratcheting mechanism or open end wrench mechanism. Mainly two type band clamps are available; ratcheting band clamp and non-ratcheting band clamp. Ratcheting mechanism band clamp has very easy tightened and release system but the non-ratcheting mechanism is very frustrating system. To secure workpieces the applying pressure should be simultaneous to all the directions. These woodworking clamps are cheap and provide light pressure.

7. Miter Clamp

Miter clamps are used for assembling miter joints. This tool set may contain a pliers and clamps. When the miter joints are gluing, it needs pressure to keep wood pieces together; miter clamps are perfect for keeping pressure on gluing miters. The clamp has two sharpen point. They can be spread up to 2 inches. A joiner can applied and remove them with their hand but it may not be in accurate places. On the other hand they can place it more accurately, easily and safely with pliers.

Without the above woodworking clamps, occasionally the carpenters may have to use masking tape, electric tape etc as clamp.

Conclusion

The woodworking skills of the joiners will be improved, if they use different woodworking clamps in their projects. Always select proper clamps for the project and wear safety equipment. After using some carpenters clamps, it may mark on the work, so in these case try to use pad to avoid marking. Do not use any spoil clamps. Always collect adequate number of clamps so that you can use exact clamps.

Woodworking hammer

Woodworking hammer is equipment that used to create sudden impact force to drive or remove nails, fits parts, forge metal and breaking up objects. Most of them are hand tools but few of them are power tools. It comes in different sizes, shape and types depends on their functions. Different trades have a special basic tool for different uses. Usually all the hammers contain two main parts – head and handle. The head is perpendicular to the axis of handle. There are so many types of hammer but here we only discuss the carpenter hammers that are used in different woodworking project.
Woodworking hammer

Claw Hammer

Claw Hammer is one of the basic tools for woodworking. It is used to drive the nail or pull the nails and some other works. It has two parts – head and handle. The head has two sides – one side is flat whereas other side has a ‘V’ shape with curved for removing nails from wood or other work piece. The head is made of steel and the handle is made of wood like hickory, fiberglass or steel. If the fiberglass or steel handle is used then it may use rubber or plastic or vinyl grip for control and comfort. The claw hammers are available in different sizes and weights such as 455-680gm. It is also known as carpenter hammer.
Claw Hammer

Framing Hammer

Farming hammer contains a longer handle and heavier than claw hammers. It is used to driving or removing large nails and doing carpentry work.

Ball peen hammer

Ball peen hammer contains one flat end and one round end on their head. Normally they are often used for hammering and shaping metal. They are also used to drive punches and cold chisels. The size and weight of them are as similar as claw hammers but their uses are not as versatile as the claw hammers. It is not essential for a woodworker. Generally the head is made of hard steel and the handle is made of wood or Hickory. They are also known as ball pien hammer, engineers or mechanics hammers. The common weights are from 110g to 165 gm but they can be range from 55 – 1100g.
Ball peen hammer

Cross pein hammer

This woodworking hammer has two sides in head where one of the sides is flat as like ball peen hammer but other side is different which looks tapered. They are used for driving small nails; straighten the deformed nails, shaping metal or light joinery work. They come in two different designs – English and France/German.
Cross pein hammer

Mallet hammer

Mallets are used in woodworking project to reduce damage to whatever we are hitting. They are made of soft materials such as wood, plastic, rubber. They have a board face which can be removable or fixed. Both of them have advantage and disadvantages. The removable face is replaceable which make it cheaper. On the other hand fixed face mallets have bouncing problems. To solve this problem a newer version mallets are come in which is known as dead blow hammer. It has a hollow head filled with lead or steel shot to reduce bounce. They are used for beating joint together, driving chisels, forming sheet metal, working on soft metals, and knock in dowels but not suitable for driving nails. It is a fundamental tool for a joinery work.
Mallet hammer

Soft faced hammer

The end faces of these woodworking hammers are made of soft materials like rubber, wood, plastic etc. It is the smaller version of the mallet hammer. It is used those cases where steel will possibly damage the work piece.

Lathe hammer

A lathe hammer head contains a smaller cutting blade and pulling nails in one end whereas the other end has a hammer head. It is used for cutting and nailing wood lath. It is also known as a lath hammer, lathing hammer, or lathing hatchet.

Knife edged hammer

This carpenter hammer looks like an axe because it has a knife edge in one end whereas the other end is flat surface. The carpenter use this woodworking hammer for cut or split wood.

Roofers and Slaters Hammer

This hammer has a spike at one side whereas the other end has a plane face. It is used for putting nail hole in slates and knocking the nails.

Non Woodworking hammer

Without these, there are many others hammers are available like Lump hammer or club hammer, Sledge hammers, Blacksmith hammer, Bricklayer hammer, Brass hammer, Cow hammer, Drilling hammer, Geologist’s hammer. But they are actually made for specific type of work which is given as follow:

Hammers Used for
Lump hammer or club hammer hitting cold chisels to break masonry in building site
Sledge hammers breaking up masonry, stones and concrete, knock rigid assemblies
Engineering / Drilling Hammer locomotive and steam engine work
Blacksmith’s Hammer shaping steel
Welder’s hammer remove waste material from round a weld
Blocking Hammers shaping metal on a block or anvil
Geologist Pick Hammers breaking up rocks
Planishing Hammer metal working
Scaling Hammers removing scale in industries like boiler
Brick & Mortar Hammers breaking bricks
Bricklayer’s / Tilesetter’s Hammer cutting brick or tile
Drywall Hammers cutting plasterboard for pipes
Chasing Hammer designed and shape metal jewelry
Toolmaker’s Hammer delicate work in the machine shop
Railroad-spike maul Hammer driving a railroad spike
bushing hammer allows stone and concrete to be textured
Scutch Hammer construction industry

Awareness using carpenter hammer

  • Always use the exact hammer for the work to avoid possible damage to the work piece and makes the work easier.
  • To get most benefits, grip at the end of the handle.
  • Always avoid loose head, damage handle or chip face.
  • To prevent probable damage of a work piece, use a piece of wood before hitting on a work piece.
  • Do not use the side for hitting purpose; use the head of the hammer. It would possibly damage the hammer.
  • Sometimes you have to rough the face with abrasive paper because after long time work the face can become polished.

Both the weight and handle type are the important factor for choosing a woodworking hammer. They have a relationship with comfort. The longer handle will help to get the full speed of the hammer but too long hand will delivers force to the wrong place. On the other hand a short handle will not deliver enough force.

Woodworking marking tools

Marking is a vital point in woodworking project. The most common woodworking marking tools are pencil, gauge, scriber, marking knives, awl etc. They are used for doing anything such as cutting, shaping, drilling to a piece of wood. You can draw a parallel line to the edges, jig jag line or rounds of a workpiece with them.

Pencils

Pencils are essential marking tool to woodworkers. They have some limitations; for example they cannot mark a sharp line and the mark may be rubbed out. But they have some benefits such as you can easily mark a line. The pencils are great for those cases where accuracy is not important. Most of the cabinet makers use pencil for marking.

Scriber marking tool

In woodworking project a scriber which is a hand tool is used to mark lines on workpieces. This tool is used for marking wood by scratching on the surface to cutting with precision. The lines with the scriber marking tool is more accurate and sharp then the pencils or ink. Often they are used for making mortise, tenon joints, door casings etc. They are made of steel and have a sharpened point which is angle of 30 or 40 degrees. Some scribers may contain a point at both ends.
Scriber marking tool

Scratch awl

The scratch awl looks like a spike which contains a tip. It is used as a point marking tool in woodworking project. It scribes a line across the timber so that a hand saw or chisel can be run properly.

Gauge

The marking gauge is a significant tool among the woodworking marking tools. There are several types of gauge are used for cutting or other operations in woodworking project. Among them the marking gauge, mortise gauge and the cutting gauge are most popular gauges on the market. They scribe a parallel line to a reference edge or surface. The gauge contains a stem/beam, headstock, screw and a scribing point tool such as pin, knife or wheel. The headstock is adjustable and the distance between the pin and headstock can increase or decrease by loosening the thumbscrew. They are more accurate marking tools than the pen or pencil.

Marking gauge

It is a most common type gauge as well as woodworking marking tools. It has a small pin which is also known as spur. The other parts of these tools are stem, stock and adjustable screw. During marking you should run the tools in line with the wood grain. If you run a line against the grain then it would possible to produce inaccurate jig jag line. Normally joiners use this tool for scribing tenons and dovetail shoulder lines. Moreover, sometimes it is also used for marking a rabbet. The stem lengths are available from 9 inches to 10.2 inches. Much larger marking gauges are known as panel gauges.

Mortise gauge

A mortise gauge has two pins where one of them is adjustable relative to each other. It is able to scribble two lines simultaneously including different widths. Normally it is used in mortise and tenon joinery project. Sometimes this gauge may contains a third pin on the opposite side so that it can be used a regular marking gauge. Therefore it is also known as combination gauge. These gauges are available in different stem length from 6 inches to 11.5 inches.
Woodworking marking tools

Cutting gauge

The marking gauge with a knife instead of a pin is known as cutting gauge. It is able to mark wood against the grain with accuracy. It can cut clean and precise deep lines in the timber. You can also use this gauge to cut through thin materials like veneer.

Wheel gauges

Wheel gauge contains a round blade instead of a pin to mark a surface. As like cutting gauge it can also mark across the wood grain. For mark out mortises the wheel gauge may also contains two round blades. Then it is known as wheel mortise gauge. The round blade contains in two separate stems. As a result they can be adjusted according to each other.

Panel gauges

The marking gauge which has a longer stem is called panel gauge. The carpenters use these tools to mark large boards to the correct width; even in center of a board. The stem length can be 12 inches to 26 inches.

Marking Knife

Joiners use marking knife to scribe a line so that they can accurately run a hand saw or chisel during making joints or other operations. It is constructed with steel blade and wood or plastic handle. They can able to mark across the grain and the line is accurate than pencils.

Others Woodworking marking tools

Some tools are not directly used as scribing but they are also known as woodworking marking tools. They are used as a guide of above marking tools. Try square, miter square, steel rule, t-bevel are such type of tools; actually they are known as measuring tools. Joiners use the try square to mark out a line at right angles to an edge. Steel rules can be used with marking knife or pencils. They are available in different lengths. Miter square is used to mark at any angles.

Wood boring tools and their uses

Wood Boring tool is one kind of cutting tool. A joiner uses these tools for holes during making or repairing furniture. The common boring tools are braces, bits, gimlet etc. Joiners can also use different chisels for boring work. The hand boring tools get power from the hand pressure whereas electric power dill get power from electricity and battery. Always try to keep sharp of your cutting parts for great result.

Boring drill bit

Boring drill bits are cutting tools that are used to create cylindrical holes. The joiners use these bits with hand brace, hand drill or electric power drills. Following are the different types of bits.

Auger bit

An auger bit contains a helical screw blade for boring holes. They have sizes from 1/4 inch to 1 inch. They are long than others bits. So they can able to bore deep holes which are very smooth. The screw blade can also act as conveyor to remove shavings from the hole. Different types and designs auger bits are available for boring holes.

Expansion bit

Expansion bit is not an indispensable tool. Sometime a joiner has to bore a larger hole as like door hole. They use expansion bit for this purpose. The bit can able to cut over 1 inch holes. It has an adjustable scale, so that you can able to cut the hole as you needed. This bit also has a tang to fit into the hand brace.
Expansion bit

Twist bit

The twist bits are inexpensive and extremely available. You can holes from 1/16 to ½ inch. They work best at higher speeds. They have a single or double spiral, two cutting edges and two spurs.

Spade bit

Spade bit - wood boring tool
The spade bit has a flat blade which is inexpensive and works very fine. The can hole from 1⁄2″ up to 1 1⁄2” in diameter. Comparatively they can bore quickly but it is not well finest.

Brad point bit

Brad point bits have somewhat similarities to twist bits. It contains a center extended point and a pair of cutting spurs. Joiners like to use these tools for exact drilling like for dowel holes. It bore a very clean hole.

Forstner bit

Forstner bit has a small center point. But this point does not guide the bit. The outer rim guides the bit to cut holes. Therefore carpenters can able to cut curve hole on a workpiece. The drawback of these bits are that if you use handheld drill then the center point may displace at the beginning time of the work from its original point. On the other hand it bore cleanest hole and ideal for overlapping boring. These boring dill bits are costly but it has some powerful qualities which make them indispensible for some woodwork. With these tools a joiner can bore a hole from ¼ ̋ to 2 ̋ sizes. For better result you should use moderate speed.

Center bit

Center bits are used as guider of the next drill bits for producing center holes in a workpiece. They ensure a hole to the right place. It is important for those cases where precision and accuracy are required. For these purposes first use the center bit then follow up with conventional drills. If these bits are used at starting time then the next drill bit does not walking. Moreover it is also used in those cases where joiners want to drill a small sizes hole into a big sizes hole. In addition joiners also use the center bits to make a conical indentation in the end of a workpiece.If you want to know more about “how to center a drill bit” then you can see this video.
center bit

Countersink bit

Countersink bit is used to cut a conical hole so that it can allow the head of a bolt or screw. During working time a joiner first bore for the screw than cut the conical hole. This bits are available in six several sizes which are 60°, 82°, 90°, 100°, 110°, or 120°. Among them 82° and 90° Countersinks are most common wood boring tool.

Cobra bit
Cobra bit is used those narrow spaces where do not have operational working environment. Joiners can use this bit as a electric screwdriver. Related video
Cobra bit

Hole saw
A hole saw is a steel cylinder with saw teeth for cutting holes. It does not cut so quickly. It is inexpensive and very available in the market. The hole saw is also known as a hole cutter. They are used for large hole up to 6 inches.

bradawl tool

It is very simple tool. Woodworkers use this bradawl tool for boring small and shallow holes. It is vital for boring holes for small to medium sizes screws.
bradawl

Drills

Drills are the wood boring tools. They are two types which are electric drill and hand drill. The hand drills are useful where the electric drills are not available. Generally they bore the holes sizes from 1mm to 9mm.
Hand-drill and power drill

Woodworking brace tool

The Brace, which is a hand tool, is used for boring hole. It consist head, cranked handle, chuck and frame. Some braces may contain ratchet, which is placed just behind chuck. These wood boring tools are ‘U’ shaped. It generates more torque than a hand drill. They are ideal for use with larger bits like auger bits, forstner bits, countersink bits etc.
woodworking brace tool

Carpenters cutting tools and their uses

Carpenters use many different types of chisels as cutting tools. Each type of chisel has a particular and variety of uses. They use these tools to boring, grooving, joint cutting etc. A chisel has three basic parts like handle, blade and tank or socket. Primarily the blade is used for cutting and the handle is used for hold the blade. On the other hand, the handle is attached with blade using a tang or socket. Normally handles are made of ash, beech, box wood, plastic, or metals. In working time, when the carpenters have to apply force on chisel, they used mallet not a hammer. The different types of carpenters cutting tools i.e. woodworking chisels are shown below.
carpenters cutting tools

  1. Firmer Chisel
  2. Bevel edge chisel
  3. Mortise chisel
  4. Gouge chisel
  5. Curving chisel
  6. Pairing chisel

Firmer chisels

The firmer chisel is one of the most significant chisels in woodworking project. It comes with rectangular type blade. They are thick and stronger. The carpenters use this chisel for heavier works. They can able to deep and large joints with a little force. Both the tang handle and socket handle firmer chisels are available in the market.
firmer chisel

Bevel Edge Chisels

Normally the bevel edge chisels are used for finishing dovetail joints. They are beveled on the sides, so they are able to access to dovetails very easily. The bevel is flat ground at 30° whereas the backs are flat. They are versatile, elegant and strong.

Mortise chisel

Mortise Chisel is more narrow than firmer chisel. It is also strong and used for heavy chopping and removing the waste wood. Normally the handle is made of ash or beech with a steel band at the top whereas the blade is made of steel. The steel band prevents the handle from splitting.

Gouge Chisel

The gouge chisel has a curved blade. It comes in different styles, sizes, shapes and thickness. Therefore we are able to give a desired shape of a woodworking project. Normally the blade is made of chrome vanadium steel whereas the handle is made of natural ash, wood. Both the tank and socket handle gouges are available. These chisels are used for carve grooves and trenches into the wood. These gouges can also be classified as different name such as spoon gouge, back bent gouge etc. You will able to make a nearly right-angle cut with them. Some of the common sizes gouges are 5/16″, 3/8″, 7/16″, 1/2″, 5/8″, 3/4″, and 7/8″.
gouge chisel

Paring Chisel

Paring chisel is a thinner chisel and has a long blade which is suitable for accessing into long joints such as housing joints and tight spaces. It is used for cleaning grooves and joints to make a finest work. As these chisels are very thin, so there is no allowed for any forces without hand pressure.

You should always consider your safety, when using chisels. You should select a sharp one not a blunt chisel. If you use a blunt chisel then it tends to slip on the wood surface and can cause a serious accident. Moreover you should not keep yourself in front of the cutting edge; always keep you behind the cutting edge.

Planning tools in carpentry

We use planning tools in carpentry works to smoothing the rough wood surface. A special hand plane is used for specific work. You need not so many planes to build nice furniture; you only need some of them. Mainly they have two parts sharpened metal plate and body. The body can be made of wood, metal or mix of both. The metal plate attached to the firm body. Most of the planes work when they are pushed across through a piece of wood. The planes are different shape and sizes. According to the work they are divided into three classes like bench plane, curve circular plane and special purpose plane.

1. Bench plane

The constructions of the bench planes are almost similar but the functions and sizes are different. Here we describe different types of bench tools.

a. Jack Plane

The plane those are used to smooth whole surface of a wood piece. It is an important wood planning tool for a professional carpenter. It has six main parts such as body, handle, cutting iron, back iron, wedge and button. It is about 35 cm long.

b. Trying or jointing plane

Jointer planes tools almost looks like jack plane but the body size and handle sizes are different. Generally it is 66.5 cm to 75 miles long and the blade are 5.46 to 6.0 cm wide. It is useful to make flat surface with these tools. The uses of these tools are reduced after comes in power tools. The trying plane is the largest plane that is a joiner used.

c. Smoothing plane

A joiner uses the smoothing plane tools for finishing surface. It is about 8 to 10 inches long. It has capacity to take a very thin layer. We use it after using the jack plane and jointing plane instead of sandpaper. This wood planning tool is great and superior option to sandpaper. It can be made of all metal body, all wooden body or mixed. There is no handle in wooden smoothing plane tool. It includes 1.25 inch to 2.5 inches cutting iron edge. The most likable smoothing tools are vintage Stanley No. 4 or No. 4 1/2, Lie-Nielsen No. 4 smoother, Veritas Bevel up smoother.

d. Block plane

The block plane is made of metal. It is primarily used for small work, or joint fitting. It is also used for tapper making. The length is about 8 to 18.8 cm whereas the blade wide is about 2.5 to 4.2 cm. It is mainly constructed with four parts such as blade, cap, lever and screw. The blade may have advantage of setting to a low angle of 12 to 20 degree. It can increase cutting efficiency. Some common brands are Lie-Nielsen or Veritas.

2. Curve circular plane

The wood planning tools that are used to make smoothing curve surface are called curve circular plane.

a. Spoke shape

The spokeshave is one kind of small plane. It has two symmetrical handles in line which is used to drive the spokeshave. It is made of steel. A joiner uses them for smoothing curved or round surfaces. The length of the blade is 3.5 cm to 10 cm and the wide is 3.5 to 6.8 cm. You can cut light or depth by setting the thumb screw.

b. Scraper

Scrapper is one kind of plane for smoothing curve wood surface. It is also made of steel. The cutting angle is set from 80 degree to 100 degree. Normally three kind of scraper are available such as hand scraper, cabinet scraper and box scraper. The common scrapers are Lie-Nielsen No. 212 and the No. 85, vintage Stanley No. 80.

c. Compass

The compass plane is also known as circular plane. It has a steel spring which is used to control the steel sheet sole to create a uniform curve. The plane stoke is about 25 cm long and the cutter sizes is 4 cm long.

d. Draw knife

It has bevel shape blade and two handle. The handles are set both side of the blade. To smooth the rough surface you have to draw both the handle. The draw knife is 25 cm to 30 cm long.

3. Special purpose plane

We are not able to complete all work such as rebate, trench, grooving, moulding with the above planning tools in carpentry project. The following tools help you to do decorative figures.

a. Rebate plane

A carpenter uses the rebate plane for making a rebate. The stock is made of wood or iron. It is 15 cm to 22.5 cm long. the blade is 0.6 to 4.25 cm wide. It has no cap.

b. Bullnose plane

The bullnose plane has a curve nose. The blade is fixed very near to the nose i.e. extremely close to the edge. Therefore you can avail to use them in very tight places. The blade is setting in the body at 18 degree. It is 10 cm long and 2.5 cm wide. Some bullnose planes have a system to use them as a chisel plane.

c. Molding plane

The moulding planes are used to cut mouldings, decorative figures in carpentry works. They may have different shapes and sizes; some of them contains outer curve blade whereas some of them contains inner curve blade. So you can use them cutting cavetto or adrol round. It can be made from wood or steel.

d. Bead plane

Bead planes are used to create semi-spherical structure. There are different shape and sizes bead plane are available. They may have 4.5 cm to 2.5 cm blade. They have no cap setting iron. The pitch of the blade is set at 55-60 degree angle.

e. Matching plane

The matching plane contains two handle and the blade is setting middle of them. They are used to finishing the groove of groove joint. This plane has no cap setting iron. The pitch of the blade is set at 60 degree angle.

f. Plough plane

A carpenter uses plough plane to cut grooves. You can also cutting rebates on wood. The handle is look like blade. It has one set or 8 cutting iron. the sizes of the cutting iron is about 3 mm to 15 mm long.

g. Router plane

Router plane is used to clean up the bottom of the grooves, shallow mortises, tenon cheeks and cut dado joints. It is a versatile joinery plane. It has several sizes. The router plane includes two handle and set a cutter between them. The cutter can be set as you wish. Some common routers planes are Stanley 71 or 71-1/2, Lie-Nielsen, Veritas.

h. Grooving plane

The grooving planes look likes a plough plane. They are used to cut small grooves into the wood.

i. Universal plane

You can do many works such as groove, rebate, mould, slit, trench with these wood planning tools. Thus it is called universal plane.