Monthly Archives: September 2017

Testing tools in woodworking

The work need to test after sawing, cutting and smoothing of carpentry project. For this reason we use different testing tools in woodworking such as straight edge, winding sticks, plumb bob, spirit level, try square etc. Without these a joiner can’t perform his work accuracy. You should not require all the tools for all time. Different kinds of testing tools are described as below.
Testing tools in woodworking

Straight edge

The edges of Straight edge tools are quite straight and parallel. They are made of wood or steel. The length of them is from 12 inches to 70 inches, wide 3.5 to 6.3 cm and thickness 0.15 to 0.5 cm. Normally it is used to test edge and plane of a thing. They are also use for draw a straight line.

Winding sticks

Normally winding sticks are used for testing the defects of twist plane of wood board. It is 15 inches long and 3.8 cm wide.

Plumb bob

The plumb bob looks like a “top”. It is made of steel, brass or lead. Normally it is used for testing the plane of door or windows are right angle with the base. It has tapered on front side and ring in the back side. The ring is used to hang them with the rope or string. It is 113 to 170 gm weight.

Spirit levels

The spirit levels are used for testing both the vertical and horizontal surfaces level in woodworking. These tools are made of wood or lightweight metal. Usually it is 65 cm long, 7.5 cm wide and 2cm thick. It includes a small hole into a hardwood stock which contains a glass tube that is filled with methelated spirit. During testing an air bubble indicates the surface is straight or not. When the air bubble fix in the middle, it indicates the surface is straight. Conversely if the surface is not plane then the air bubble goes to the highest end. It is a brittle tool which can easily break. So it should be handling carefully. You can use it as a marking gauge.


Calipars is looks like as divider. It is significant tools for measuring. It is three types such as outside calipers, inside calipers and spiring calipers. They can be further classified as firm joint, lock joint and spring joint.

Try square

Try square can be used for testing straightness of plane surface of a wood and the right angles of edges. It has two main parts – blade and handle (stock). Among them blade is made of steel and stock is made of wooden or cast iron. The blade is fitted with the handle at right angles. The blade is 15 cm to 30 cm long, 3.8 cm wide and 0.15 cm thick.

Miter square

As like try square miter square also contains blade and handle. The blade is made of steel and handle is made of cast iron or brass. The blade is set into the stock at an angle of 45°. The length of the miter square is 20 cm to 35 cm.

Bevel square

The bevel square is also known as sliding bevel. It is used for testing angles other than 90°. As like try square they also include two parts – blade and handle which are combined with a screw or wing nut. The blade is made of steel whereas the handle is made of cast iron or brass. The blade can be rotated to any angle from 0 to 180 degrees. The length of the sliding blade is from 15 cm to 30 cm. They are available in four sizes from 6 inches to 13 inches.
9. Joiner uses the surface plate for testing the flatness, trueness of surfaces. You can also use in scribing work. It is made of cast iron, graphite or glass.


Rulers are used for fine, accurate woodworking measurement. The most uses rulers are 30 to 60 cm long.

Wood sawing tool

After measuring and marking Joiner uses sawing tools to cut wood into pieces. These joinery tools are different types which are design to suit different purpose. They are classified by considering of their blade length, and the size, shape and number of teeth. The wood needs to be cut in different style and angles which can be depend on the shape, size and set of the teeth and blade. The wood sawing tools can be divided into following two groups:

  1. Bench saw and
  2. Curve cutting saw.

Bench wood sawing tools

We can classify the bench saw into two groups like traditional hand saws and back saws.
Wood sawing tools

  • Traditional hand saws – such as rip saw, cross cut,
    panel saw, Pit saw. Normally which are used for larger timber work.
  • back saws – such as tenon, dovetail and bead saw; these sawing tools have supporting metal along the back side.

Traditional hand saws

Rip saw

Rip Saws are usually 650-700 mm long. It contains 3-5 teeth per 25 mm. The shape of the teeth are square faced or chisel like which are set at 90° across the blade. It cut the wood along the grain. When starting to cut, it would be 60° angles with the wood for more efficiently.

Cross cut saw

The length of the cross cut saws is usually 600-650 mm. It contains 6-8 teeth per 25 mm. The teeth are bevel type. They are ideal for cutting across the grain in thick wood of a small project. For more efficient result, the cutting edge should be 45° angle with the work. The teeth of this saw are set such a way that the cutting edge can be cut wider than blade thickness and push out the saw dust easily. As a result the blade can move freely during working time.

Panel saw

The size of the panel saw is about 450-550 mm. It contains 7-10 teeth per 25 mm. Generally they are used for cutting sheet materials like plywood and particle board.

Pit saw

Pit sawing tools also known as two handled saw or jac saw. Normally it is 4 feet to 6.5 feet long and 5 inches to 12 inches wide. Therefore it needs two people during sawing works. The blade is rigid and made of steel spring. These saws contain long teeth which are bent to back side. Every 25 mm contains 1 teeth. It is used for cross sawing large wood.

Miter box saw

The miter box saws are used to cut the wood at a specific angle. Generally it is used to make picture frame or similar work.

Back saws

The back saws can be used to cut more accurately straight lines. It features solid metals strip on the back side to provide the blade construction as rigid form. The following three sawing tools are the most common back saws.

  • tenon saw
  • dovetail saw
  • gent’s saw.

Tenon saw

The construction of the Tenon saw blade is very thin. Therefore it includes a metals strip on the back side to keep the saw rigid. It is used for cutting joints of fine cabinet work. The teeth of these saws are designs as like cross cut saw. It is 25 to 40 cm length. It includes 12-24 teeth per 25 mm.

Dovetail saw

Dovetail sawing tools are looking as like Tenon saws but smaller size of them. It is 20 to 25 cm long. The number of teethes are 18 to 20 per 25 mm. These tools also has a metals strip on the back side of the blade. It is fine work saw for small notches, moldings, beads or any smaller cuts.

Gent’s saw

Among the back saws the gent’s saw are the smallest. The length of this tool is 4 inches to 20 inches. It includes up to 32 teeth per 25 mm.

Bead saw

Bead saws are looking as like a “Dovetail saw” but the blade is not as wide as them. Normally it is 4 inches to 12 inches long and contains 16-25 teeth per 25 mm. It is used for small and fine work or used as tenon saw.

Veneer saw

This saw is used for veneer sawing work purpose. It is 6 inches long and the blade is fixed on a wood piece with a screw. The teeth are parallel.

Curve cutting wood sawing tools

The curve cutting saws are less wide. Therefore the wood can saw as curve. The following saws are included in this class:

Bow or turning saw

It is a special type of saw which is clasp at a frame with two arms. The blade contain one side of the arms whereas a narrow cord is contains in another side. Moreover the arms hold a beam in the middle with a liver. The blade is tensioned with the cord. It is used for cutting circular or curved work. The length of the blade is about 8 inches to 16 inches. The numbers of teeth are about 15 which are small and cross cut saw pattern.

Compass saw

The compass saw contains a narrow, longer and stronger blade which is continually tapered to the end. The blade is 12 inches to 18 inches long and contains 10 to 12 teeth per 25 mm. The blade is fixed with a open type of wooden handle. It is used for radius cutting or narrow work.

Knife or key hole saw

The key hole saw also known as pad saw. It is design for cutting key holes in door which is the reason for the name. It is also used for electrical sockets, light fittings etc. work. Moreover, a joiner also use it where the coping or fret saw cannot reach. As like the compass saw this blade is also fixed with an open type of wooden handle. Therefore it is changeable. This saw is narrow than compass saw. It is 11 inches to 16 inches long.

Coping saw

The coping saw is constructed by a frame and a very narrow blade. The blade is attached with the frame by helping with a screw. The blade is up to 6 inches long. It contains about 14 teeth per inch which are very small and rip saw pattern. It is used for curve cutting in internal or external side of wood. For example it is used for making toys, template with the plywood.

Fret saw

Fret saws are looking as like the coping saw. It has a very long body, about 12 inches to 20 inches. The length of the blade can be five inches. It has a tension screw to create a tension on blade. It contains up to 32 teeth per 25 mm. They are used for cutting curve on different designs.

Woodworking measuring tools

Measuring is the fundamental part for woodworking. When carpenters use the measuring tools properly then they can complete the work clean and accurately. Consequently low loss of wood, high productivity and the furniture looks fine and high quality. You should remember that it needs somewhat extra wood during wood processing like smoothing. So you should careful when measuring the wood. There are so many woodworking measuring tools. But the following tools are very important. Always choose the right tools to measure according to design.
Woodworking measuring tools

Measuring tape
Normally these carpenters measuring tools are used for long straightforward distance measurement. It is made of stainless steel, leathers or fabrics. It may contain a handle or a bottom for controlling the tape. The tape can be found as inches, foot, cm or mm. Different lengthened measuring tape can be found but 16 feet tape is work finely in wood shop. You can also use 12 feet tape but larger than 16 feet is not suitable for woodworking. You can accurately measure the inside and outside of a case or drawer. If the end hook gets damage then you should have to replace the tape. Otherwise the measurement will be affected.

Framing square
During assembly this instruments keep the furniture square. It may be different sizes. But the 24 by 16 inches tool is the large one which is normally used in carpentry.

Try square
Try square is as similar as larger framing squares for constructed right angles.

Combination square
The combination square is a favorite tool to many woodworkers for a variety of layout tasks like marking across boards. You can use this tool to mark accurate 90º and 45º angles. Several sizes tools are available such as from 4-12 inches. It is one of the most multipurpose woodworking measuring tools in the shop. It has an adjustable head which is crucial for calibrating or checking machinery and laying out joinery.

Sliding T- bevel
Many joinery projects needs different angles such as 45. Sliding T-bevel is great for these types of projects. It has an adjustable lock. You can lock it at any angle. Moreover you can also shorten as you needed.

Short ruler
A tape measure is use as one kind of ruler. But sometimes it may create a problem. For example, when you want to take a measurement in the middle of a workpeices, it may not provide the accurate measurement. In this case you can use a short ruler comfortably. It is compact size which is easily fit into a pocket. The other advantages of this ruler over the large ruler are easy to read marking, thin blade and distinct. A short ruler like 6 inches ruler is essential for all sorts of precise layout tasks. You can keep this ruler into your pocket at all the time.

Folding ruler
For a longer measurement in the middle of a workpeice, a tape measure or short ruler is not suitable. A measuring tape has a hook on one end so it can affect on accurate measurement. In this case you can easily work with a folding ruler which will provide accurate measurement. Moreover, it can also provide excellent measurement inside a case or a box. It is also easily fit into a pocket.

Zig zag ruler
This ruler looks like as folding type ruler. Zig zag ruler can be one or two miter long and has many folding. When you needs folding, then you should fold carefully; otherwise it may be broken. The tape can be found as inches, foot, cm or mm.

Woodworking hand tools and their uses

Here we focus some information on woodworking hand tools and their uses. These tools are non automated power joinery instruments; the power comes from the muscles. Each joiner needs a basic set of hand tools. If your tool collections are rich and high quality then you can perform your work greatly. You should always take your safety in the work place. It will help you to prevent accidents. Moreover, you should take proper care of your tools so that they will give long and efficient service. We can categorized the basic hand tools in the following groups:
woodworking hand tools

Measuring tools
To make any thing with the wood, at first needed measuring according to design. We use many measuring hand tools to doing these task. If you can measure currectly then the work will complete accuratly. The common measuring tools are tape, miter, foot rule etc. They are made of metal case or a tough plastic or rubber case. Therefore they does not break easily.

Marking tools
After complete the measuring you should need marking on the wood. After that you should complete the work according to these marking. There are many instrument for the marking such as try squre, metre square, bevel squre. pencil etc.

Sawing tools
After measuring and marking of a wood or board then it needs saw or cutting. The instruments which is used to cutting or sawing of the wood is called sawing tools. The hand sawing tools have many style, types and sizes. They are used to cutting straight edges, making angled cuts and cutting curves. It has two parts – blade and handle. The blade is made of high quality steel so that it will cut very sharply and will not break off while in use. On the other hand the handle is made from plastic, wood or metal. Some of the common sawing tools are rip saw, tenon saw, pit saw etc.

Planing tools are used after measuring and sawing to smooth the uneven wood sarface by cutting a very thin layers. They comes in many types and styles to carry out a specific function. The most widely used planers are jack plane, jointing plane, block plane, spoke shave etc. These tools increases the joiner precision and efficiency in woodworking.

Testing tools
Testing tools are used after measuring, sawing and planing the wood to test plane, edge etc. The common testing tools are straight edge, winding sticks, plumb bob, sprit level, side calipars, try square etc.

Cutting tools
Rather than sawing tools a wide range of tools used to cut, hole or groove the wood. These types of tools are chisel, knives, scissors, axes etc.

Drilling or boring tools
The holes may be required to insert screws, dowels or other fittings into the wood. These holes can be done into two way – drilling and boring. Although present days people use power drill for this task but many of work, done with hand boring tools. Yet, it is plays an significant role in many carpentery and joinery wood working. The most widely used boring tools are brace, bit, bardawl, gimlet etc.

Without these you may have to use many hand tools such as cramp, hammer, hand vice, screw driver, spanner for perform different works.

Although people use many power tools during woodworking but the necessity of the hand tools are endless. They always plays an important part in wood working. Before and after the work, you should always check your hand tools and equipment visually to ensure that it has any defects or works fine.